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Methodology - Lifespan Development
Below are some suggested readings from a lifespan development perspective on methodologies used in aging research. Feel free to add your favorite methodology articles, bookchapters, etc. (and please include links to the articles if applicable).
For the purpose of our class we will be reviewing and discussing the following two articles:
Hoyer, W. J., Rybash, J. M., & Roodin, P. A. (1999). Appendix A: Developmental research methods. In Hoyer, Rybash, & Rodin (Eds.), Adult Development and Aging (pp. 493-521), Boston: McGraw-Hill College.
This is actually an appendix in a classic psychology of aging textbook. It makes a great primer for getting into many methodological ideas related to lifespan development. In addition, it covers basic / general / fundamental methodological issues. This would be a great place to start learning about developmental methodologies and to review basic methodologies. The outline for the appendix follows, as well as, some slides for presenting this subject matter. Feel free to remix the slides and use them.
Basic Issues of Measurement
Reliability of Measures
Ways of Improving Reliability
Validity of Measurement
Basic Techniques Used for Collecting Measurements
Interviews and Questionnaires
Behavioral Research in Lab vs. Field Settings
Laboratory Research with ANimal Models
Basic Strategies for Describing and Interpretting Measurements
Measures of Central Tendencies and Variability
Correlations between Variables
Basic Strategies for Research Design
Correlational vs. Experimental Strategies
Manipulations Between and Within Subjects
Quasi-experimental Strategies in Developmental Research
The Problem of Internal Validity
Quasi-Experimental Designs for the Study of Adult Development and Aging
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Designs
Shaie's Most Efficient Design
Problems of Samplign in Developmental Research
Nonrepresentative Samples in Cross-Sectional designs
Nonrepresentative Samples in Longitudinal Designs
(pdf of slides)
Hertzog, C. & Dixon, R. A. (1996). Theoretical issues in cognition and aging. In F. Blanchard-Fieldds and T. Hess (Eds.), Perspectives on Cognitive Change in Adulthood and Aging (pp. 66-121). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
This article is for more advanced students that have had a quality methodology and design class or two. To get the most out of it you probably also need some statistics classes under your belt to appreciate the discussion of complexity (multidimensionality). I appreciate the care that the authors take to explain many of the ways we can use to gain knowledge and advance the science of learning about development across the lifespan. This book chapter does a lot of work to integrate and compare the various theories used to study cognitive aging.
Theoretical issues in Cognitive Development
Universal versus Differential
Directionality and Dimensionality
How (Multi)directionality Relates to (Multi)dimensionality
Plasticity and Reversability
Gains versus Losses versus Maintenance
Consistency versus Variability
Interplay Between Theories and Methods in Cognitive Aging
Metatheories, Methods, and the Search for Why
Current Collectives of Theories and Cognitive Aging
Theoretical Utility of the Slowing Hypothesis
Practical and Social Cognition
Conditions of Maintenance and Improvement
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