organized by Garin Berry, Beth Hebert, Jerry Kelley, and Dawn Souter.
Please choose 2 of the following articles from the list below to read prior to class on March 1.
Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Professional Learning: What School Leaders Should Know.


Motivation: the willingness to exert effort to perform well.

Motivation: The study of action (to move).

Expectancies: beliefs about how one will do on different tasks or activities
Values: in this context, have to do with incentives or reasons for doing the activity
Modern theories of motivation focus specifically on the relation of beliefs, values, and goals with action. (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 110).
Self-Efficacy: people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute course of action required to attain designated types of performances. Bandura expanded this definition in 1989 to also state that self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action needed to meet situational demands. Mitchel, et. al. concludes that self-efficacy"...clearly refers to what a person believes he or she can do on a particular task" and Mitchel later adds, "capability, although based heavily on ability, also reflects a forward-looking prediction of how hard one will work and an integration of both of these factors".

Theoretical Basis

Theories Focused on Expectancy (Beliefs about competence and expectancy for success): Self-Efficacy Theory, Control Theories
Theories Focused on the Reasons for Engagement (The reasons why individuals engage in different activities): Intrinsic Motivation Theories, Interest Theories, Goal Theories
Theories Integrating Expectancy and Value Constructs: Attribution Theory, Modern Expectancy-Value Theory, Self-Worth Theory
Theories Integrating Motivation and Cognition: Social Cognitive Theories of Self-Regulation and Motivation, Theories Linking Motivation and Cognition


Blase, J. & Blase, J. (1999). Principals' instructional leadership and teacher development: teacher's perspectives. Educational Adminstration Quarterly. 35, pp. 349 - 378.

Butler, R. (1987). Task-involving and ego-involving properties of evaluation: effects of different feedback conditions on motivational perceptions, interest and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology. 79(4), pp. 474 - 482.

Eccles, S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology. 53, pp. 109- 132.

Eppler, M. & Harju, B. (1997). Achievement motivation goals in relation to academic performance in traditional and nontraditional college students. 38(5), pp. 557 - 573.

Harrison, A.& Rainer, R. & Hochwarter, W. & Thompson, K. (1997). Testing the self-efficacy-performance linkage of social-cognitive theory. The journal of social psychology. 137(1), pp. 79-87.

Hickey, D. & Zuiker, S. (2005). Engaged participation: a sociocultural model of motivation with implications for educational assessment. 10(3), pp. 277 - 305.

Joy, S. (2004). Innovation motivation: the need to be different. Creativity Research Journal. 16(2 & 3), pp. 313 - 330.

Katzell, R. & Thompson, D. (1990). Work motivation. American Psychologist. 45 (2), pp. 144 – 153.

Knippenberg, D. (2000). Work motivation and performance: a social identify perspective. International Association for Applied Psychology. 49 (3), pp. 357 – 371.

Lee, J. (2005). Developing a professional development program model based on teachers needs. The professional educator. 27(1&2), pp. 39-49.

Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (1999). The relative effects of principal and teacher sources of leadership on student engagement with school. Educational Administration Quarterly. 35, pp. 679 – 706.

Lohman, M. (2006). Factors influencing teachers' engagement in informal learning activities. Journal of workplace learning. 18(3), pp. 141 - 156.

McGivney, V. (2004). Understanding persistence in adult learning. Open Learning. 19(1), pp. 33 - 46.

Steel, P. & Konig, C. (2006). Integrating theories of motivation. Academy of Management Review. 31 (4), pp. 889-913

Zimmerman, B. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: an overview. Educational Psychologist. 25(1), pp. 3 - 17.