I understand there might be some confusion with what to do, we apologize -- So here it is:

I am emailing a copy of the two articles in Word for you to read. We will discuss these fully through the evening.
We will also be discussing who an adult learner is during this day and time. We also will be looking to see what
people could have to learn as they age.

The other sites that are listed are for your exploring pleasure.

We will see you in class tomorrow -
Jamie, Rhonda, Sandy, and Jason

We're searching for articles that have empirical data...and learning how to use this wiki site....trying to see how to add links
assumptions about adult learners
how adults learn
adult learning theory
adult learner motivation swicki search engine

Jamie, Sandy, Jason, and Rhonda

Additional articles w/ general information describing characteristics of adult learners
http://www.msstate.edu/dept/ais/8523/Zemke1995.pdf - "Adult Learning: What Do We Know For Sure?" by Zemke and Zemke
http://hkuspace.hku.hk/teacher/pdf/engEffectiveteaching_ch1.pdf - "The Major Characteristics of Adult Learners"
http://agelesslearner.com/intros/adultlearning.html - "How Adults Learn" by Marcia L. Conner

The article that I will be presenting can be found at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/547417_1. It is from WebMD, which may require a login to view the article, but it is free to login. If I can find a direct link w/out having to go through WebMD I will post it. The title of the article is "An Overview of Adult-Learning Processes" by Sally Russell and was printed in Urologic Nursing, 26(5), October 2006, and offers a broad description of adult learners and the implications for health care providers when patient well-being information is being presented. It covers many of the topics that we will be discussing in class. Unfortunately that means that there may be some of overlap w/ some other groups. Thanks, Jason

Provider/Patient relationship
Adult Learning Principles
-Level of engagement
-Applying knowledge
Characteristics of Adult Learners (Knowles, 1970)
Sources of Motivation for Adult Learners (Lieb, 1991)
Learning Styles
Barriers in a Clinical Situation

Russell, S. S. (2006). An overview of adult-learning processes. Urologic Nursing, 26(5), 349-370.
  • Russell indicates that health care providers and their patients participate in a teaching – learning process that requires consideration of knowledge of adult learning principles and learning styles
  • In a clinical or provider/patient relationship the goal is effective, efficient information that can be used to address the situation successfully
  • Russell credits Malcolm Knowles as a pioneer in adult learning theory and uses his six characteristics of adult learners to answer the question, “Who are Adult Learners?” Those characteristics are:
    • Autonomous and self-directed
    • Accumulated a foundation of experiences and knowledge
    • Goal oriented
    • Relevancy oriented
    • Practical
    • Need to be shown respect
  • According to Knowles the climate should be one of mutual trust and expectations (a cooperative environment).
  • Adult learners are most often concerned with creating change. That could involve a change in: skill, behavior, knowledge level, or attitude about something.
  • When comparing adult learners to school age-children the major differences are: motivation, the amount of previous experience, the level of engagement in the learning process, and how the learning is applied.
    • Motivation: tie learning experience to natural motivation. (ex. Someone with stress urinary incontinence would be naturally motivated to learn about Kegel exercises)
    • Experience: Former experiences can be used to connect to current learning and guide the adult learner to a specific outcome
    • Level of Engagement: adult learners have a need to be self-directed. Patience and time on the part of the provider and patient need to be considered.
    • Learning application: opportunities must be provided for the provider to demonstrate and the patient to return demonstrate whatever skill is being addressed. When progress is seen through demonstration, adult learners realize greater motivation to learn more.
  • Adult learners bring more preconceived thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that must be considered when planning educational experiences
  • Learning styles are a consideration for defining “Who are Adult Learners?” Consideration of learning style will produce the most effective outcome of the instruction provided. Three broad learning styles were discussed:
    • Visual: appreciate visual instructions and diagrams
    • Auditory: appreciate discussion and dialog, being afforded the opportunity to ask frequent questions
    • Kinesthetic: hands on learners, appreciate opportunities to “do something”
  • Barriers to learning include: lack of time, lack of confidence, lack of information about opportunities to learn, scheduling problems, lack of motivation, and “red tape”.
  • Russell notes that in a clinical situation, adults are more sensitive to the physical setting. Consideration should be given to lighting, noise level, and room temperature.
  • The optimal situation for adult learners is a combination of teaching methods, combining visual, auditory and kinesthetic styles. Collaboration between patient and provider will maximize success.
    Here is the second article for our presentation: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/delivery?vid=8&hid=12&sid=465caefd-a631-48a4-aa96-7feb00c00a1c%40sessionmgr106
    This article examines how adults use the computer and the Internet for self-education, specifically highlighting how this technology can both "facilitate and suppress learning opportunities thoughout the adult population."
    Enjoy. Sandy